What is MikroTik RouterOS?


MikroTik RouterOS is the operating system of MikroTik RouterBOARD hardware.  But it can  also be installed on a PC and  will turn it into a router with all the necessary features.  It has a huge feature set including Routing, Firewall, Bandwidth Management, Wireless Access Point, Backhaul Link, Hotspot Gateway, MPLS, VPLS, VPN ,  QOS and much more.  It is a Linux v2.6 kernel base OS.

Configuration

RouterOS supports various  methods of configuration – local access with keyboard and  monitor, serial console with a terminal application, Telnet and  secure SSH access over networks, a custom GUI configuration tool called Winbox, a simple  Web based configuration interface and  an API programming interface for building  your own control application. In case there  is no local access, and  there  is a problem with IP level communications, RouterOS also supports a MAC level based connection with the custom made Mac-Telnet and  Winbox tools.

RouterOS features a powerful,  yet easy to learn command- line configuration interface with integrated scripting capabilities.

    •  Winbox GUI over IP and  MAC
    •  CLI with Telnet, SSH, Local console and  Serial console
    •  API for programming your own tools
    •  Web interface

Firewal

The firewall implements packet filtering and  thereby provides security functions, that are used to manage data flow to, from and  through the router.  Along with the Network Address Translation it serves for preventing unauthorized access to directly attached networks and  the router  itself as well as a filter for outgoing traffic.  RouterOS features a stateful  firewall, which means that it performs stateful  packet inspection and  keeps track of the state of network connections traveling  across it.

It also supports Source and  Destionation NAT (Network Address Translation), NAT helpers for popular applications and  UPnP. The Firewall provides features to make  use  of internal connection, routing and  packet marks.  It can  filter by IP address, address range, port, port range, IP protocol, DSCP and  other  parameters, also supports Static  and  Dynamic  Address Lists, and  can  match packets by pattern in their content, specified in Regular Expressions, called Layer7  matching.  The RouterOS Firewall facility also supports IPv6.

Routing

RouterOS supports a multitude  of routing protocols:

  • For IPv4 it supports RIP v1 and  v2, OSPF v2, BGP v4.
  • For IPv6 it supports RIPng, OSPFv3 and  BGP.

RouterOS also supports Virtual Routing  and  Forwarding (VRF), Policy based routing,  Interface based routing and  ECMP routing.  You can  use  the Firewall filter to mark specific connections with Routing  marks,  and  then  make  the marked traffic use  a different ISP.

Now with MPLS support added to RouterOS, VRF is also introduced. Virtual Routing  and  Forwarding is a technology that allows multiple instances of a routing table  to co-exist within the same router  at the same time. Because the routing instances are independent, the same or overlapping IP addresses can be used without conflicting  with each other.  VRF also increases network security. It is often used in, but not limited to MPLS networks.

Forwading

RouterOS supports Layer2  forwarding – including Bridging, Mesh  and  WDS. WDS allows to create custom wireless coverage using  multiple APs what is impossible to do only with one AP (indoor,  railroad installations) WDS allows packets to pass from one AP to another, just as if the APs were ports  on a wired Ethernet switch

 To optimize  WDS performance on large  scale networks Mikrotik has  designed special layer-2  forwarding interface type  – Mesh.  (R)STP eliminates the possibility  for the same MAC addresses to be seen on multiple bridge ports  by disabling secondary ports  to that MAC address. This helps avoid  loops  and  improves network reliability.

 MikroTik also offers an alternative to RSTP – HWMP+HWMP+ is a MikroTik specific Layer-2  routing protocol for wireless mesh networks.The HWMP+ protocol is an improvement of the Hybrid Wireless  Mesh Protocol  (HWMP) from IEEE 802.11s draft standard.

MPLS

MPLS stands for MultiProtocol Label  Switching. It can  be used to replace IP routing – packet forwarding decision is no longer based on fields in IP header and  routing table, but on labels that are attached to packet. This approach speeds up forwarding process because next hop lookup  becomes very simple compared to routing lookup.

Efficency of forwarding process is the main benefit  of MPLS. MPLS makes it easy to create “virtual links” between nodes on the network,  regardless of the protocol of their encapsulated data.

It is a highly scalable, protocol agnostic, data-carrying mechanism. In an MPLS network,  data packets are assigned labels. Packet-forwarding decisions are made solely on the contents of this label,  without the need to examine the packet itself. This allows one to create end-to-end circuits  across any type  of transport medium, using  any protocol. Some  of the supported MPLS features:

  • Static  Label  bindings for IPv4
  • Label  Distribution protocol for IPv4
  • RSVP Traffic Engineering tunnels
  • VPLS MP-BGP based autodiscovery and  signaling
  • MP-BGP based MPLS IP VPN

VPN

To establish secure connections over open networks or the Internet, or connect remote locations with encrypted links, RouterOS supports various  VPN methods and  tunnel  protocols:

  • Ipsec – tunnel  and  transport mode, certificate or PSK, AH and ESP security protocols
  • Point to point tunneling (OpenVPN,  PPTP, PPPoE,  L2TP)
  • Advanced PPP features (MLPPP, BCP)
  • Simple tunnels (IPIP, EoIP)
  • 6to4 tunnel  support (IPv6 over IPv4 network)
  • VLAN – IEEE802.1q  Virtual LAN support, Q-in-Q support
  • MPLS based VPNs

 This means that you can  securely interconnect banking networks, use your workplace resources while travelling,  connect to your home  local network,  or increase security of your wireless backbone link. You can even  interconnect two branch office networks and  they would be able to use  each other’s resources, as if the computers would be in the same location   – all secure and  encrypted.

RouterOS also provides several MikroTik proprietary functions that are not found elsewhere, for example EoIP which is a Ethernet tunnel between two routers on top of an IP connection. The EoIP interface appears as an Ethernet interface. When the bridging function of the router  is enabled, all Ethernet traffic will be bridged just as if there where  a physical Ethernet interface and  cable between the two routers (with bridging enabled). This protocol makes multiple network schemes possible, for example the possibility  to bridge LANs over the Internet.

Wireless

A variety of Wireless  technologies are suppored in RouterOS, the most basic of them being the wireless access point and client. If it’s a small hotspot network in your home,  or a city wide mesh network,  RouterOS will help  you in all situations. Some  of the features supported by RouterOS:

IEEE802.11a/b/g/n wireless client and  access point

Nstreme and  Nstreme2 proprietary protocols

  •  Client polling
  •  RTS/CTS
  • Wireless  Distribution System (WDS)
  • Virtual AP
  • WEP, WPA, WPA2 encryption
  • Access control  list
  • Wireless  client roaming
  • WMM
  • HWMP+ Wireless  MESH protocol
  • MME wireless routing protocol

RouterOS also features the NStreme proprietary wireless protocol that allows to extend the connection range and  speed, when using  MikroTik routers at each end. This has  helped to achieve the current non-amplified wifi link length  world record in Italy. Also supported is NSteme dual  which allows to use  two antennas at each end, one for receiving and  one for sending.

Hotspot

The MikroTik HotSpot  Gateway enables providing of public network access for clients  using  wireless or wired network connections. The user  will be presented a login screen when first opening his web browser. Once a login and  password is provided, the user  will be allowed  internet  access.

 This is ideal for hotel, school, airport,  internet  cafe  or any other public  place where  administration doesn’t have  control  over the user  computer. No software installatin or network configuration is needed, hotspot will direct  any connection request to the login form.

 Extensive user  management is possible by making  different user profiles,  each of which can  allow certain uptime, upload and download speed limitation, transfer amount limitation and  more.

 Hotspot also supports authentication against standard RADIUS servers and  MikroTik’s own User Manager which will give you a centralized management of all users in your networks.

  • Plug-n-Play access to the Network
  • Authentication of local Network Clients
  • User Accounting
  • RADIUS support for Authentication and  Accounting
  • Configurable bypass for non-interactive devices
  • Walled garden for browsing exceptions
  • Trial user  and  Advertisement modes

Quality of Service (QoS)

Bandwidth Control is a set of mechanisms that control  data rate allocation, delay  variability, timely delivery,  and  delivery reliability.

Quality of Service (QoS) means that the router  can  prioritize and  shape network traffic. Some  features of MikroTik RouterOS traffic control mechanism are listed below:

  • limit data rate  for certain IP adresses, subnets, protocols, ports, and  other  parameters
  • limit peer-to-peer traffic
  • prioritize some packet flows over others
  • use  queue bursts for faster  web browsing
  • apply  queues on fixed time intervals
  • share available traffic among users equally,  or depending on the load  of the channel

RouterOS supports Hierarchical Token Bucket  (HTB) QoS system with CIR, MIR, burst  and  priority support, and  provides both advanced queuing, and  also an easy solution  for basic QoS implementation – Simple queues.

PCQ was introduced to optimize  massive QoS systems, where  most of the queues are exactly  the same for different sub-streams. For example a sub-stream can  be download or upload for one particular client (IP) or connection to server.

PCQ algorithm  is very simple  – at first it uses selected classifiers to distinguish one sub-stream from another, then  applies individual FIFO queue size and  limitation on every sub-stream, then  groups all sub- streams together and  applies global  FIFO queue size and  limitation.

Web Proxy

RouterOS features a MikroTik custom made proxy server for caching web resources, and  speeding up customer browsing by delivering them cached file copies at local network speed. MikroTik RouterOS implements the following proxy server features:

  • Regular HTTP proxy
  • Transparent proxy
  • Access list by source, destination, URL and  requested method (HTTP firewall)
  • Cache access list to specify which objects to cache, and which not.
  • Direct Access List to specify which resources should be accessed directly,  and  which – through another proxy server
  • Logging facility
  • SOCKS proxy support
  • Parent proxy support
  • Cache storage on external drives

RouterOS can  also act  as a Transparent Caching server, with no configuration required in the customer PC. RouterOS will take

all HTTP requests and  redirect them to the local proxy service. This process will be entirely transparent to the user, and  the only difference to them will be the increased browsing speed.

Tools

To help  administrating your network,  RouterOS also provides a large  number of small network tools to optimize  your everyday tasks. Here are some of them:

  • Ping, traceroute
  • Bandwidth test,  ping flood
  • Packet sniffer, torch
  • Telnet, SSH
  • E-mail and  SMS send tools
  • Automated script  execution tools
  • CALEA data mirroring
  • File Fetch  tool
  • Active connection table
  • NTP Client and  Server
  •  TFTP server
  • Dynamic  DNS updater
  • VRRP redundancy support
  • SNMP for providing graphs and  stats
  • RADIUS client and  server (User  Manager)

The Dude

The Dude  network monitor is an application by MikroTik which can  dramatically improve  the way you manage your network environment. It will automatically scan all devices within specified subnets, draw and  layout a map  of your networks, monitor services of your devices and  alert you in case some service has  problems.

 Not only can  you monitor your RouterOS devices, you can monitor any device that is accessible by Ping or provides SNMP information.  You are able  to make  traffic and  availibility graphs, outage reports, and  even  use  the Dude  as a Syslog  server for your RouterOS device log files.

The Dude  can  also manage your RouterOS device configurations, and  automate their software upgrades  and  mass configure them.

Best of all – The Dude  is free of charge

Download PDF (What is MikroTik RouterOS)

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